The part of Indian education was very integral and important since the foundation times of India. In the recent times education system has changed a lot showing a great increment in the percentage of education. This has only been possible with the intensity of Indian economy. There are many roles of government and also you can find different kinds of advantages and disadvantages of Indian education.
The Indian government has established the University Grants Commission (UGC) for promoting and accelerating the education system in India. This commission functions mainly for the upliftment and betterment of higher education in India. For the primary education, the government has also taken a few steps. One of the main problems in the education of India is the economic problems in the families. For this, the government has made elementary education for the children in the age range 4-14 years compulsory and free of cost. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is made mainly for the poor children. In this, children are given free education with one time meal. Added to this government has also taken steps in imparting computer education in the primary levels.
Government has certainly taken measures to improve the quality of education for all the three stages, primary, secondary and higher.
Here is the list of some of the great schemes initiated by Government of India to improve education in the country.
Schemes for Primary Education
The two major schemes for primary education are following.
1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
2. Mid Day Meal
These two schemes targets mainly children coming from poor economic background. The schemes will help to bridge gaps between children coming from different socio economic strata.
Schemes for Secondary Education
1. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
2. National Scheme of Incentives to Girls for Secondary Education
3. Girls Hostel Scheme
4. Scheme of Vocational Education
5. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage
6. National Scholarships
Secondary education schemes targets children falling under the age group of 14 – 18. The purpose of these schemes is to prepare students for the higher education.
NCERT (National Council for Educational Research and Training) focuses on educational development in terms of both quantity and quality.
Schemes for Higher Education
Objective of higher-educational schemes is to prepare students for the job market. Young graduates can develop their skills so that they can become part of skilled workforce in the country.
Here are some of the important schemes for higher education.
1. All India Council for Technical Education Scholarships
2. Scheme of Apprenticeship Training
3. Department of Science and Technology grants and fellowships
4. Scholarship Schemes for ST Students by Ministry of Tribal Affairs
5. Post-Doctoral Research Fellow (Scheme)
6. Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities - Schemes/Programmes
7. Sports Authority of India promotional schemes
Statistics of current Indian education
According to the current statistics, it has been that the level of primary education has evolved a lot in the Indian society. Approximately, two third of the population is being crossed by the primary education. But in this, 40 % are still illiterate and only 20 % of the students catch the school. The total literacy percentage in India is 65.38 %. But you will find a great gap in the percentage between urban and rural areas. Urban areas have a literacy percentage of 80 whereas rural areas have 59.4 % of literacy rate.
Here I would like to give an important statistics regarding higher education in India.
Only 11% - 13% of total students enrolled for primary education and secondary education are being able to complete their graduation. It simply means rest of them quit before they graduate.
Some of them quit right after completing primary education, a lot after secondary education and remaining quit while they are still pursuing their graduation.
Comparing with USA, their graduation rate is 28% - 30% of total students enrolled.
Advantages of Indian education
With the advancement of education, India has seen a great development in the field of economy. People are less unemployed and some of them are even self-employed. One of the best positive things is that the child labor has gone down to a great extent. There are also reservation systems available for the socially deprived people. The present statistics is 7.5% of the schedule tribes, 15% for the schedule castes and 27% of the other backward class.
Presently there are mainly two boards apart from the state boards imparting education till higher secondary, that is, ICSE and CBSE. Added to this there are also Open Universities providing study at home facility. If you look at the technical fields, there are many institutions providing higher education. Also you will find some institution providing the facility of e-Tutorial.
I would like to talk about two very important positive aspects of Indian education system. One is growth of technical institutions. There are more technical colleges in India than ever before. If you want to become an engineer then it is really not that difficult to get an admission in a reputed college certified by AICTE. Hence, there is no dearth of engineering graduates in the country.
A Second positive aspect is focused on theoretical knowledge. Students are being able to learn more and more theoretical concepts. This helps them to develop higher intellect compared to students from other countries.
Disadvantages of Indian education
Apart from the pros, there are many cons involved in the Indian education system. There are many political heads which form a great gap between Indian government and the common people. Some of them take money from the government but don't utilize for the good of the common people. Also you will find many socially forward people taking the advantages of the reservation system. The problem lies in the large percentage of illiteracy and population. These two things need to be focused much before making any development.
I can write a book on “Disadvantages of Indian Education System”. However, concisely, I will give you some of the most glaring cons of our education system.
- Our education system promotes rat race. Too many examinations hence there is no imagination only cramming. Therefore after graduation, most of the students fail to conceive great business Ideas and just settle for a stipend job. Hence, a real dearth of good entrepreneurs in the country.
- Only science stream is good, rest of the two streams like commerce and arts is bad. Forget about sports. Zero Sports!
- Teaching method is old and outdated. It is just Chalk and Talk.
- Mushrooming of private tuition centre or coaching classes is a big problem. Education means money.
- Last but not the least is no practical education, only theory. Hence little or no room for research work.
In short, India is a progressing country and the present scenario of Indian education has improved a lot from the past. Different kinds of steps are taken by the government for bettering the present Indian education.