The Government has taken a number of steps to encourage scientists to engage in quality research and development. These measures include successive increase in plan allocations for Scientific Departments, setting up of new institutions for science education and research, creation of centres of excellence and facilities in emerging and frontline areas in academic and national institutes, induction of new and attractive fellowships, strengthening infrastructure for Research and Development (R&D), encouraging public-private R&D partnerships, etc. Launching of programmes like Nano Mission, Mega Facilities, Open Source Drug Discovery, Climate Change Studies, National Biotechnology Development Strategy, etc. and creation of a new structure for basic research by establishing a Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) in the country demonstrates the commitment of the Government to encourage and promote research in a better scientific environment. Sharing of proceeds with scientists from sponsored projects, consultancy projects, premia and royalty received from the industry; mobility of scientists between national labs, academia and industry; knowledge alliance with private industry to pursue product driven R&D and establishment of incubation centres to nurture start-up companies and enable chances of commercialization; investment of knowledgebase as equity in enterprises and incentives for performing scientists etc. are some of the initiatives aimed at scientists to take up challenging research so that Indian Science could compete with the other countries.