Translation & Localization
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting - the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages.